What is C.T.E.? – The New York Times – World News

What is C.T.E.? – The New York Times

“The brain is 86 billion neurons,” Novinsky said in a telephone interview. “We’re talking about some microscopic lesions here and there. The location of the lesions and how your brain is wired will probably have a greater impact than staging. A lesion that’s a millimeter in the other direction, Can be the difference between normal behavior and impaired behavior.”

first stage The earliest sign of CTE is lesions primarily found in the frontal lobe, and symptoms often include minor memory loss. In Phase 2, the wounds spread to the adjacent cortex, continuing their attack on memory. Frontal lobe damage, Novinsky said, is well-known for being associated with concentration, cognition and impulse control issues. Examination of Adams’ brain, which was found to be stage 2, indicated an unusually dire diagnosis for a man in his 30s, as found hernandez, which Mackie diagnosed step 3, in which lesions occupy the medial temporal lobe, affect the hippocampus and amygdala, and cause impulsive, violent reactions; paranoia; and loss of memory.

In step 4When CTE has spread to multiple parts of the brain, Novinsky said, most people are diagnosed with dementia clinically. He said that 13 years pass between stages and people with CTE over 60 are almost always found to have stage 3 or 4.

Hall of Fame center Mike Webster was the first NFL player to get a CTE, the results of which were published in a scientific journal in 2002, three years after his death. More than 315 former players, including Ken Stabler and frank gifford, posthumously diagnosed with CTE researchers at Boston University announced in 2019 The study dealing with football players doubled the risk of developing the worst forms of CTE for every 5.3 years they played.

For many years, the NFL long denied any connection between brain damage and blows to the head, until overwhelming scientific evidence was countered. When a class-action lawsuit brought by former players surfaced, the league acknowledged the connection and agreed to a settlement of approximately $1 billion; The NFL has since agreed to stop using race-based methods. In evaluating claims of dementia that deprive black players of potentially hundreds of thousands of dollars in benefits.

In response to the increasing prevalence of CTEs, The NFL has developed intensive protocols for players who have had, or show symptoms of, a head injury., The league installed a head injury spotter in the press box of all games; doctors and neuro-trauma specialists on edge; and experts in neuro-cognitive testing in the locker room. The league has also strengthened rules against quarterbacks and players who lower their helmets to initiate contact.

The NFL has invested millions of dollars in helmet and concussion research, and It even staged a $3 million grant competition aimed at improving the helmet’s performance and safety. According to the league, 99.9 percent of players wore the “best performing helmet” in the previous season, and hopefully position-specific helmets will be introduced soon.

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